Royal Sundaram General Insurance Company was earlier known as Royal Sundaram Alliance Insurance Company Limited and is a subsidiary of the Sundaram Finance. The company was formerly a joint venture between Sundaram Finance and Royal and Sun Alliance Insurance Plc. Royal Sundaram is popular for providing general insurance solutions to individuals, families and various businesses either directly or through its intermediaries and partners.
Things to know about Royal Sundaram General Insurance
Royal Sundaram General Insurance Company is the first private sector general insurance company in India which was licensed by the IRDA (Insurance Regulatory Development Authority of India) in the year 2000. In February 2019, 40% of the equity stake was acquired by Ageas Insurance International N.V. Out of the remaining share Sundaram Finance has 50% of the equity stake under their control and the remaining 10% is held by other Indian shareholders.
Royal Sundaram General Insurance Company has been providing a wide range of insurance products related to health, motor, home, travel, personal accident, etc. for its customers. The company has a workforce of more than 2000 employees and a total of 143 branches all over India. It is a pioneer in the field of bancassurance in India and has been having long term professional ties up with many reputed banks.
Important facts about Royal Sundaram General Insurance Company Limited
Let us enlist some important facts about the company.
- Royal Sundaram General Insurance Company’s accident and health claims procedure were awarded the ISO 9001-2008 certification due to its great customer service delivery.
- Moreover, the company has also been the winner of the “Celent Model Insurer Asia Award” for the years 2013 and 2014. The claims management system developed by the company has a great contribution in increasing customer satisfaction and the development of productivity in staff.
Types of products offered by Royal Sundaram General Insurance Company Limited
Royal Sundaram General Insurance Company offers an exclusive range of insurance products for the satisfaction of its customers.
Let’s have a look at the different types of products offered by the company –
Health insurance plans
Health insurance plans are one of the most popular plans which Royal Sundaram offers. These plans cover the cost of hospitalization which is incurred when the insured faces a medical contingency. Royal Sundaram offers both indemnity oriented and fixed benefit health insurance plans. Indemnity oriented policies cover the actual medical costs incurred by the policyholder while under fixed benefit health plans a lump sum benefit is paid irrespective of the actual costs. Let’s have a look at the different types of health insurance plans which Royal Sundaram offers for its customers –
- Hospital Benefit Plus Insurance Plan
This is a fixed benefit policy which pays a lump sum benefit on a daily basis if you are hospitalized for a period of 24 hours or more. This hospitalization can be because of accidents or injuries. Besides covering hospitalization, a lump sum benefit is also paid if your hospitalization exceeds 21 days. Moreover, you get an inbuilt personal accident cover which is valid worldwide.
- Smart Cash Plan
Similar to the Hospital Benefit Plus Plan, this plan also pays a daily cash benefit if you are hospitalized for a period of 24 hours or more. The plan comes in three variants and the daily cash benefit depends on the variant chosen. In the case of ICU hospitalization, the cash benefit is doubled up. The plan also allows coverage for childbirth, critical illness, convalescence benefit and compassionate visit. You can enhance your coverage by opting for personal accident cover by paying an additional premium.
- Hospital Cash Insurance
As the name suggests, this is also a hospital cash benefit plan which pays a daily cash benefit in case of hospitalization which exceeds 24 hours. You can also get a premium discount if you cover three or more of your family members under the policy. The daily cash benefit can be chosen from INR 500 to INR 3500 depending on your coverage needs.
- Surgical Shield Plan
Another fixed benefit health insurance plan, this plan is useful in covering the expensive surgical treatments which you might undergo in a medical contingency. The policy covers 100 types of surgeries and a percentage of the sum insured is paid in a lump sum if you undergo any covered surgery. The policy also pays a daily hospital cash benefit when you are hospitalized for 24 hours or more. Costs of diagnostic tests and ambulance are also covered under the plan.
- Secure All Plan
This is an indemnity oriented health insurance plan which covers the actual medical expenses incurred subject to a maximum of the sum insured availed. The plan covers inpatient hospitalization and the associated costs. There is also coverage for daily cash allowance in case of hospitalization. Moreover, the plan provides coverage against accidental death and disablement wherein a lump sum benefit is paid.
- Critical Illness Lump sum Plan
This is a fixed benefit health insurance plan which covers critical illnesses. The policy covers nine illnesses and if the insured is diagnosed with any illness covered under the plan, the sum insured is paid in a lump sum. You can avail a maximum coverage of up to INR 25 lakhs under the policy.
- Surgicare Plan
This policy is also a fixed benefit health plan for covering specific surgeries undertaken by the insured. The policy covers 140 surgeries and pays a lump sum benefit if any covered surgery is undertaken. You also get the benefit of hospital cash allowance against hospitalization and medical second opinion in case of life-threatening illnesses or injuries.
- Hospital Cash Insurance Plan
Another hospital cash benefit policy, what sets this policy apart is the fact that you can avail a daily cash allowance for up to 180 days in one policy year. There is also a 10% premium discount if you also cover three and more of your family members under the policy.
- Family Health Floater Policy
As is evident from the name, this is a family floater health plan which covers your entire family under a single policy. The policy is an indemnity health plan which means that the actual hospitalization costs are covered by the policy. You can also avail free health check-ups once after the completion of four continuous policy years.
- Top-up Insurance – Health XS and Super Health XS
A top-up health insurance plan helps you increase your health insurance coverage level without hitting your pockets hard. These plans are indemnity oriented health plans which come with a deductible limit. Once the claim exceeds the deductible limit, the excess claim is covered by the policy. You can either choose a top-up plan wherein every claim would be matched with the deductible or a super top-up plan wherein aggregate claims in a year would be matched with the policy. You can also buy this policy on a family floater basis to cover your family members under it.
- Health Forever
A comprehensive health insurance plan, Health Forever covers the actual medical costs incurred on hospitalization and other associated treatments. The policy has an inbuilt critical illness cover which widens its scope of coverage tremendously. There is also a cover for hospital cash benefit and a lump sum convalescence benefit. Thus, the plan combines three essential coverage benefits of medical insurance, critical illness insurance and hospital cash insurance in one.
A very popular plan offered by Royal Sundaram, Lifeline is an indemnity health plan which is quite comprehensive in nature. The policy allows sum insured restoration, covers international hospitalization and also has an inbuilt critical illness cover which covers 11 major illnesses. Coverage for OPD expenses and maternity treatment ensure all-round protection. There are optional coverage benefits too which you can choose for enhancing the coverage of the policy and for making it an all-round plan.
- Family Plus
Another comprehensive plan offered by Royal Sundaram, Family Plus, like Lifeline, provides a good scope of coverage not only to you but to your family members as well. You can cover up to five generations under a single plan. Free health check-ups every year, a medical second opinion in case of severe illnesses, maternity cover and premium discounts make the policy all-inclusive in nature and also affordable on the pockets.
Motor Insurance Plans
In India, the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 dictate that every vehicle should have a valid motor insurance cover. As such, two-wheeler and four-wheeler motor insurance plans become important. Royal Sundaram offers both types of motor insurance plans for vehicles in India. The plans offered by the company include the following –
- Car Shield
Royal Sundaram offers a comprehensive car insurance policy called Car Shield. The policy covers third party legal liabilities as well as the damages suffered by the car itself. There is also a mandatory personal accident cover under the policy which covers the owner/driver of the car against accidental death and disablement. Premium discounts help in making the policy affordable and there is a range of add-ons which can be added to the policy to make it all-inclusive.
- Two-Wheeler Package Insurance
Royal Sundaram offers two-wheeler package insurance policy for bikes and two-wheelers. The policy can be taken for one year or for a long term period. Personal accident cover is inbuilt under the policy where the owner/driver is covered against accidental death and disablement. There is also a range of add-on covers to make the policy comprehensive in nature.
- Commercial Vehicle Insurance
Commercial Vehicle Insurance covers vehicles which are used for commercial or business uses. Such vehicles can be passenger-carrying vehicles, goods carrying vehicles, taxis, etc. Both liability only and comprehensive coverage plans are available for insuring commercial vehicles. Comprehensive commercial vehicle insurance plans also have two add-ons of depreciation cover and a windshield glass cover to offer all-round protection to commercial vehicle owners.
Travel insurance plans are those which cover trips taken for leisure, business or higher education. Travel insurance plans cover emergencies which are faced when you travel to another destination. These emergencies can include medical contingencies, loss of baggage, loss of passport, financial liability, personal accident, etc.
Royal Sundaram offers a range of travel insurance plans which are as follows –
- Travel Secure Leisure Trip
This policy covers trips which are taken for vacation or a holiday. No medical check-ups are required to buy the policy and the policy is issued online in an instant. You can cover your whole family under a single plan and get a comprehensive scope of coverage which includes medical expenses, daily cash allowance, hijack benefit, trip cancellation, compassionate visit and emergency hotel extension among others. The premiums for the policy are affordable and you can choose a plan for any part of the world that you travel to.
- Travel Secure Multi Trip
This is an annual multi-trip travel insurance policy. The coverage duration is one year and the policy covers any number of trips taken during the year. This policy is suitable for individuals who travel frequently for business purposes. Such individuals don’t have to insure their trips independently every time that they travel because the multi-trip policy would automatically extend coverage to any trip taken within the coverage duration. The coverage benefits are quite inclusive and you can buy the policy up to 70 years of age.
- Travel Secure Student Plan
This policy is designed for students who visit international countries for higher education. The policy covers such students against unforeseen emergencies which they might face while studying in a foreign land. Students aged between 12 years and 40 years can be covered under the plan which provides coverage against medical expenses, personal liability, felonious assault, sponsor protection, bail bond, etc.
- Travel Secure Asia Plan
This policy is meant to cover trips which are taken within Asia to countries like Thailand, China, Bhutan, UAE, etc. Coverage under the policy includes trip cancellation, trip delay, loss of passport, emergency cash advance, compassionate visit, medical treatments, etc. You don’t have to submit any medical reports to buy the policy and the policy allows coverage to individuals between the ages of 91 days and 70 years.
- Travel Secure – Senior Citizen Plan
As the name suggests, this travel insurance policy is designed for senior citizens. Individuals who are aged 71 years and above and who cannot be covered under other travel insurance plans offered by the company can be covered under this plan. There is no maximum age limit thereby allowing individuals of all ages to buy the policy. Some unique coverage benefits offered by the plan include accidental death and dismemberment, sickness dental relief, emergency cash advance, missed flight connection, political risks, etc.
Personal accident insurance
Personal accident insurance plans are fixed benefit coverage plans which cover accidental deaths and disablements. If the insured suffers any disability or death due to an accident, these plans pay a lump sum benefit to help the insured and/or the family with the financial loss suffered.
Royal Sundaram offers a variety of personal accident insurance plans which are mentioned below –
- Income Protector Plus Policy
This is a comprehensive personal accident insurance plan which combines both personal accident coverage as well as health insurance coverage under the same plan. The policy covers accidental death, permanent partial and total disablement, monthly income in case of permanent disability, hospitalization expenses incurred on accidental injuries, recovery benefit, transportation of mortal remains and an education grant for children in case of accidental death. A cumulative bonus is also allowed if claims are not raised in a policy year and the policy covers individuals for up to 75 years
- Personal Accident Care Platinum Insurance
This is also a comprehensive personal accident policy which covers accidental deaths and disablements. In case of death due to motorbike accidents, however, 75% of the sum insured is paid. 5% cumulative bonus is allowed under the plan if no claims are made subject to a maximum of 25%. This bonus increases the sum insured without increasing the premium rate.
- Personal Accident Care Platinum Insurance
A variant of the Platinum plan, this policy covers accidental death and permanent total disability suffered in an accident. You can buy the policy either for one year or for two consecutive years and there is also a cumulative bonus if no claims are made in a policy year. The sum insured of the policy is expressed as up to 8 times the annual income of the insured.
- Accident Shield Classic
A classic personal accident policy, Accident Shield Classic also covers medical expenses which are incurred due to accidental hospitalization besides accidental death and permanent disablements. You also get a monthly income benefit in case of a disability which helps in providing a source of income when you are unable to work. A free education grant of INR 10,000 is allowed for up to two dependent children in case of accidental death. Moreover, the costs incurred in transporting the mortal remains of the insured are also covered up to INR 5000. There are three plan variants and also premium discounts to lower the premium outgo.
- Individual Personal Accident Policy (Accidental Death & Disablement Only)
This is a personal accident policy which allows coverage on an individual basis. Coverage is allowed for accidental death, permanent total or partial disablement, temporary total disablement as well as medical costs incurred in case of hospitalization due to an accident. Transportation of the dead body, education grant and recovery benefit are also covered by the policy without an additional premium. Coverage can be taken for up to three consecutive years and there is a no claim bonus of 5% if no claim is made in any policy year. The bonus is cumulative in nature and it increases the sum insured every year up to a maximum of 25%.
- Janatha Personal Accident Policy
This personal accident policy is available for individuals belonging to the rural and social sectors. Coverage is allowed if the individual is aged between 10 years and 70 years. Premiums of the policy are very low and the policy covers accidental death and disablement.
- Rural Accident Insurance Policy
As is evident from the name, this policy covers individuals living in the rural areas of India. this is, therefore, a micro personal accident insurance policy which covers individuals in the age group of 10 years to 70 years. An individual can buy the policy for self and family and even an organization can buy this cover for its workers or members. Accidental death, permanent disability and hospitalization expenses incurred due to an accidental injury are covered under the plan.
Home insurance plans are those which cover and protect your home against unforeseen natural and man-made disasters. These policies cover the financial loss suffered if the structure of the house and/or its contents is damaged. Royal Sundaram offers two types of home insurance plans which are described below –
- Gruh Suraksha Home Insurance – Home Building
This policy covers the structure of the house and pays for financial loss suffered due to natural or man-made causes. There are five coverage variants under the plan namely – Bronze, Silver, Gold, Platinum and Diamond. The sum insured depends on the coverage variant selected. A premium of the policy is lower for affordable housing projects encouraging homeowners to secure their homes against damages. Add-ons are also available for an all-inclusive coverage and you get premium discounts which make the premiums affordable.
- Gruh Suraksha Home Insurance – Household Articles
This policy covers the contents of the home against damage, loss or theft. This plan also has five coverage options of Bronze, Silver, Gold, Platinum and Diamond and coverage of up to INR 1.7 crores can be availed through the policy. You can cover valuables and jewellery, appliances, baggage, loss of cash, external equipment, etc. under the plan. Moreover, coverage is also allowed for third party liability, personal accident to household staff, etc
Business insurance plans are plans which are designed for the financial risks faced by businesses and their severe impacts. These policies provide a complete scope of coverage to businesses so that their profitability is not disturbed due to any unforeseen emergency. Royal Sundaram offers a range of business insurance plans for the different types of risks which businesses face. These plans are as follows –
- Product Liability Insurance
- Plate Glass Insurance
- Neon Insurance
- Special Contingency Insurance
- Burglary Insurance
- Money Insurance
- Jewellers Block Insurance
- Point of Purchase Insurance
- Baggage Insurance
- Standard Fire and Special Perils Policy
- Consequential Loss (Fire) Insurance Policy
- Fire Industrial All Risk
- Boiler Pressure Plant Insurance
- Power Shield Insurance
- Wind Energy Combined Insurance
- All Risk Insurance Policy
- Machinery Breakdown
- Electronic Equipment
- Machinery Loss of Profit
- Advance Loss of Profit
- Erection All RiskProduct
- Contractors All Risk
- Contractors Plant & Machinery
- Contractors Protection Shield
- Comprehensive Erection Insurance
- Civil Engineering Completed Risks Insurance
- Fidelity Guarantee Insurance
- One-Stop Freight & Logistics solutions
- Clinical Trial Liability
- Directors & Officers Liability
- Professional Indemnity
- Banker’s Indemnity
- Commercial General Liability
- Public Liability – Act Only
- Marine Cargo Insurance – Open Policy
- Marine Cargo Insurance – Single Transit
- Enterprise Shield
- Office Shield
- Traders Shield
- Hotel Shield
- Combined Fire and Burglary
- Education Shield
- 360 Degree Business Shield
- Public Liability Insurance Policy – Industrial
- Public Liability Insurance Policy – Non-Industrial
- Group Health Policy
- Group Personal Accident Policy
- Workmen’s Compensation Policy
How to buy Royal Sundaram General Insurance policies?
Royal Sundaram General Insurance policies can be purchased mainly by two methods.
- Offline Method
By the offline method, Royal Sundaram General Insurance policies can be purchased by visiting the nearest branch office. The interested applicants can fill up the application form and make the premium payment for procuring the general insurance policy.
- Online Method
By the online method, interested applicants can visit the official website of Royal Sundaram general insurance company, click on the ‘Buy Now’ option and check out the various insurance plans available. Then, on entering the basic details the premium value of the insurance policies would be displayed. The interested applicant would have to fill the application form online and select the mode of premium payment. On completion of premium payment, the purchase process of the insurance policy is completed.
Another convenient method by which interested applicants can purchase the Royal Sundaram General Health Insurance policy is by Turtlemint. You can select the insurance policy of your choice and purchase it easily on Turtlemint.
How to buy from Turtlemint?
The steps involved in the purchase of Royal Sundaram General Insurance Policy through Turtlemint are as follows.
- First, you need to visit the official website of Turtlemint i.e. https://www.turtlemint.com
- In the next step, you will have to select the type of insurance policy you are interested in purchasing
- In the case of purchasing the Royal Sundaram health insurance policy, the steps involved are as follows:
- Certain basic details need to be entered for the purchase of the Royal Sundaram Health Insurance policy
- Age of the members who would be covered
- The annual income of the family
- If any pre-existing illnesses which need to be specified
- Area PIN Code for determination of the network hospitals
- With the entry of all these details, you will obtain a list of all the good health insurance plans that are available in the market
- Then, you can select the health insurance plan according to your requirements and budget
- Now, you will have to fill the available online application form
- You need to specify your premium payment mode and make the premium payment
- Once the premium payment is completed, your health insurance policy purchase is also completed
- Certain basic details need to be entered for the purchase of the Royal Sundaram Health Insurance policy
However, if you are interested in buying a Royal Sundaram motor insurance policy i.e. either a car insurance policy, two-wheeler insurance policy or a commercial vehicle insurance policy the steps involved are as follows.
- You will have to enter your vehicle number for moving on to the next step associated with the purchase of a Royal Sundaram motor insurance policy
- There is a need for entering certain basic details associated with the vehicle such as
- Model of the vehicle
- Manufacturing year of the vehicle
- Fuel Type
- The previous policy type
- Any claims if made in the previous year
- Previous insurance provider
- Your contact details
- With the entry of all these details, you will obtain a list of all the good motor insurance plans that are available in the market
- You can compare the premiums, features and select the best motor insurance plan for yourself
- The online application form has to be filled and the premium should be paid
- With this, the procedure of purchase of Royal Sundaram Motor Insurance policy is completed
The renewal process of Royal Sundaram General Insurance Plans:
The Royal Sundaram General Insurance Plans can be renewed online in a very hassle-free manner.
- You will have to visit the official website of the company for the insurance renewal process.
- The online insurance renewal process of the Royal Sundaram General Insurance Policy is known as ‘Insta Renew’.
- In the first step, you will have to enter your policy number and the expiry date of your policy.
- In the next step, you will be able to view your policy details.
- Next, you need to make your premium payment either by debit card, credit card or by internet banking.
- The company can take around 2 working days to get the payment processed and the renewal process to get completed.
However, there is another process by which you can even renew your Royal Sundaram General Insurance plans. This convenient means to renew your existing policy is by the use of Turtlemint. When you have made your policy purchase through Turtlemint, then you are the existing customer of Turtlemint. You can easily use your credentials and log in to the Turtlemint account. Once you have logged in, you can easily select the type of policy you want to renew. In the next step, you can click on the ‘Renew’ option and make your premium payment. With this, your insurance policy would be renewed without any hassles.
Claim Process for Royal Sundaram General Insurance Plans
The claim process for the different insurance products offered by the Royal Sundaram Insurance Company is different. Let us check out the claim process associated with important insurance products like Health insurance and Motor Insurance.
- Claim Process for Royal Sundaram Health Insurance Plans:
- Cashless Claims (For Domestic Claims)
- If the hospitalization is a planned one, the TPA (Third Party Authority) must be intimated. It is necessary to seek cashless authorization at least 72 hours of hospitalization
- If the hospitalization is unplanned or is an emergency, it is necessary to inform the TPA within 24 hours of hospitalization
- After the TPA has checked your coverage, you would be provided with a cashless authorization form. You need to fill that form by 3 hours of receiving it. You can attach all the required documents as well along with the authorization form
- You can make the payment for those expenses which are not included in your policy coverage
- If approved, your bills will be settled down between the hospital and insurance provider
- In case, your request is rejected you can make the payment and keep the receipts and bills for reimbursement request
- Cashless Claims (For Worldwide Emergency Hospitalization)
- You need to inform the insurance provider immediately within 24 hours of hospitalization
- The request made by you would be verified and you can get further calls for more information
- Your insurance provider would connect with the hospital authorities immediately in case of acceptance or denial of the pre-authorization request
- When the request is approved the bills would be settled between the hospital and the insurance provider
- Reimbursement Claims
- The claim form must be duly filled, signed and sent to the Royal Sundaram General Health Insurance Company by 30 days of discharge from the hospital
- In case there are any discrepancies in the documents, you will obtain a letter from the company
- In case there are no discrepancies, the Royal Sundaram General Insurance Company would make the payment within 30 days of receipt of the claim form
- The documents related to the reimbursement claims must be sent to the below-mentioned address:
Health Claims Department, Royal Sundaram General Insurance Co Ltd, Vishranthi Melaram Towers, No.2/319, Rajiv Gandhi Salai (OMR) Karapakkam, Chennai – 600097
- Claim Process for International Treatment of specified Critical Illnesses
- Before travelling overseas for treatment, the company must be informed about the specific critical illness for pre-authorization
- The company’s authorities will evaluate the request and can call further for more details
- The Service Provider of the company can directly inform the hospital or the policyholder about acceptance or denial of the request
- When the request is accepted, the company would settle down the bills with the hospital. Any additional charges which are not included in the scope of the policy would be paid by the policyholder
- Cashless Claims (For Domestic Claims)
Moreover, another way to get a settlement of your health insurance claims is through Turtlemint. There is a dedicated claims department that helps customers in the settlement of their claims. For your claim settlement, you can call on 1800 266 0101 or send an email to email@example.com.
2. Claim Process for Royal Sundaram Motor Insurance Plans
- You can call on 1860 425 0000 or send an email on firstname.lastname@example.org to inform you about your claim
- The main details needed would be policy details, your contact details and the details of loss incurred
- Before the completion of the survey, you should not dismantle or repair the vehicle
- The survey would be arranged based on the claim intimation received and the estimate of repairs mentioned by you
- You should submit the necessary documents needed for the claim process
- In case if all the documents are correct, your claim would be approved. The bills would be settled between the company and the network garage
- For reimbursement claims, you must submit all the bills and receipt of the payments that have been done
- After the settlement of bills, you can collect your vehicle
You can also get your claims settled through Turtlemint. You can simply call the company at 1800 266 0101 or send an email at email@example.com to inform you about your claim. This is feasible if you are an existing customer of Turtlemint. Turtlemint has a dedicated claims department that would work on your claims and would follow all the necessary steps to settle your claims soon.
- Documents needed for Health Insurance Plan claim
- Duly filled and signed claim form
- Discharge Summary
- Doctor’s prescriptions and reports
- All types of treatment and diagnostic bills
- Diagnostic reports like X-ray, Scan reports, ECG reports, and other medical investigation reports
- Advance and the final receipts
- Photocopy of FIR in case of accident cases
- Photocopy of patient ID card and health card
- Documents needed for Motor Insurance Plan claim
- Duly filled and signed claim form
- Aadhar number and PAN is mandatory
- Photocopy of the insurance policy document
- Original and a photocopy of the Registration Certificate
- Original and a photocopy of the driver’s driving license
- FIR from the police station in case of third party death or injury to person or third party damage to the vehicle.
- Photocopy of PAN along with a recent passport-sized photograph in case of the claim amount exceeding INR 1,00,000
- Repair bills and receipts
Company Address and Contact Information-Royal Sundaram General Insurance Company
Royal Sundaram General Insurance Co Ltd, Vishranthi Melaram Towers, No.2/319, Rajiv Gandhi Salai (OMR), Karapakkam, Chennai – 600097
Toll-Free Number: 1800-425-6645
The commencing period is considered as the factor for deciding the cover period. However, the coverage for each journey can be either 30 days or 45 days.
Yes, the sum insured can be increased by payment of additional premium for the left out part of the insurance.
Yes, Home Content Insurance can be availed in rented accommodation.
The policyholder can log in to the company website by using his credentials i.e. email ID and password.
The policyholder can visit the nearest branch office of the Insurance Company along with the original policy documents. On the submission of those documents, the premium refund would be initiated.